Friday, 15 March 2013

Case Study: Earthquakes in MEDC vs LEDC



Comparing the New Zealand Earthquake (an MEDC) to the Kashmir earthquake (an LEDC)




Facts

New Zealand Earthquake (MEDC)

Earthquake in Pakistan (an LEDC)


Place

(Include a map)

Christchurch, New Zealand



Time and Date

22nd February 2011 – 12:51 and 43 seconds local time (23:51 UK Time)


8th October 2006- 03:50 GMT

Epicentre


10km south-east of Christchurch



80km North –East of Islamabad

Magnitude


6.3 on the Richter Scale



7.6 on the Richter scale

Depth of focus


 5km deep

10km deep

Plate names


Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate



Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate

Type of margin



Destructive



                        Conservative


Why was the earthquake so destructive?

The earthquake was so destructive due to its depth and location. The focus of the earthquake was only 5km deep meaning that the seismic waves don’t degenerate a lot before reaching the surface. Secondly the epicentre of the earthquake was a mere 10km South-East of Christchurch, which is New Zealand’s second biggest city. This means that the population density in the area is very high. In some areas there were 45-55 people per hectare (2008).  The area was also very urbanised with lots of tall buildings and the earthquake struck at midday when many people were in the area. This is in comparison to the earthquake that hit New Zealand on the 3rd September 2011, which had a higher magnitude of 7.1 on the Richer Scale but was located 40km west of the city and had its focus 10km deep meaning it caused little damage (0 deaths) compared to the earthquake on the 22nd February which has so far caused 161 deaths with many missing.


The earthquake was so destructive because many people were not prepared for an earthquake of that magnitude (7.6 on the Richter scale) to hi the country. Building where poorly built and not earthquake resistant.  For example the earthquake was strong enough to topple a building 100km from the epicentre. To add to this winter was approaching after the earthquake. Freezing temperatures of –15C to –20 and heavy snow in highland areas meant that there was more chances of diseases spreading and aid workers found it difficult to get through to these remote areas (e.g. Neelum Valley).   

Primary (immediate) effects – include key facts

Social

·   166 people dead.

·   228 people still unaccounted for.

·   Airport was closed.

·   Power and telephone lines have been knocked down.

·   Towns including Lyttleton, Shirley and New Brighton remain without electricity (3 days since earthquake).

·      88,000 people dead

·      The earthquake affected 3.5m people.

·      70,000 people injured.

·      80% of health facilities in the earthquake struck region where destroyed.

Economic

·   Timeball station in Lyttelton harbour was running at 40% capacity and the tunnel linking the harbour to Christchurch was only open to emergency services (3rd March).


·      The earthquake affected 30,000sq km of land.

Environmental


·   A lot of litter and rubble produced.

·   The earthquake also produced liquefaction. 

·   Burst water pipes causing flooding.

·A lot of litter and rubble produced.

·Buildings knocked down.

·Leaking gas pipes

·Burst water pipes.  

Secondary (longer term) effects include key facts

Social

·   Water supplies were cut of for half the city and much of the water is contaminated (14 water tankers have been placed around the city). 3 days since earthquake. Could cause the spread of disease.

·   Shelter’s closed down due to spread of disease.

·   Social problems from family losses and stress.


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·   Due to lack of recourses and shelter the government had to distribute 350,000 tents, 3.2 million blankets and 3,000 tonnes of medicine.

·   In Muzaffarabad a sports stadium is being used to look after the homeless and provide food and water.

·   Stress and trauma for families.

Economic

·   Insurance loses could be as high as £5.5bn.

·   The cost of the earthquake is expected to reach £9.5bn.

·   Loss of revenue from tourism.

·      The Pakistani government has distributed $44milion to 379,600 people to rebuild homes.

·      $4.5 billion dollars of International aid was given to help relief efforts in the area struck by the earthquake.

·      The UK government has provided £12 million to help the relief effort. 

·      Loss of revenue from tourism.

Environmental

·   Can cause ecosystems to be damaged.

·   Roads will need to be rebuilt.

·   At least 1/3 of the buildings in the centre of Christchurch will need to be demolished.


·      Many buildings had to be re-build by their owners. Each homeowner received 150,000 rupees to re-construct their house.

·      Roads will need to be rebuilt.

                                                                    Responses

Immediate responses

·   Search for survivors- 70 people were rescued alive from the wreckage. 

·   Providing key resources for survivors (e.g. food, water, shelter).

·   Welfare centres have been set up. For example the Aranui Primary School and the Opawa Baptist Church.

·   Worldwide response: The UK government has sent a team of 62 people and 9 tonnes of equipment to help in Christchurch. (22nd Feb) 

·   Temporarily fix burst water pipes, sewage systems e.c.t.

·      Search for survivors

·       $4.5 billion dollars of International aid was given to help relief efforts in the area struck by the earthquake.

·      The UK government has provided £12 million to help the relief effort. 

·   Providing key resources for survivors (e.g. food, water, shelter).

·      Welfare centres have been set up. For example In Muzaffarabad a sports stadium is being used to look after the homeless and provide food and water.

Long term









·      The Pakistani government has distributed $44milion to 379,600 people to rebuild homes.

·      Many roads are being re-build

·      Pakistan’s Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (Erra) has been put in place.

                    Prediction

Were there any techniques in place which predicted the occurrence of the earthquake?

No, owever earthquakes are common as New Zealand sits on the ring of fire.

No, the area was known for earthquakes however there were no mechanisms in place to predict this earthquake. 


Preparation

Has there been any preparation for future earthquakes? E.g. Evacuation policies

·     People (including emergency services) will be much more aware of the threat an earthquake imposes and be able to deal with the affects.

·      They will also have more emergency equipment to deal with the situation.

·     Earthquake evaluation plans in schools, offices and public buildings.  

·      The public services are more prepared for a future earthquake. They will be able to respond to the situation immediately.


·      However they need to receive more equipment in order to deal with the situation effectively. 


·      UNDP’S - Earthquake Recovery Programme (ERP) was actively involved in combating the ongoing issue of landslides through implementing innovative and cost-effective techniques of slope stabilization in local communities.


·      Earthquake proof schools in the Kashmir region.


·      Teaching those in the construction business about how to earthquake proof building designs.


                      Prevention

What, if anything, has been done to prevent such death and destruction in the future?

·   Building designs in the future will probably be much more earthquake resistant.

·   They may have dampening or bracing systems to help absorb the shocks.

·   They will also have lead rubber bearing to absorb the shock.

·   Emergency services need to be trained to cope with earthquakes.

·      There has been a bit of prevention for future earthquakes however many attempts have become unsuccessful.


·      The Pakistani Government has stated that people must rebuild their homes against Pakistan’s Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (Erra). However by October 2006 many people still had not received money from the government to rebuild their homes- so many still lived in shelters.



1 comment:

  1. Thanks for this it really helped with my geography essay on this subject! Well displayed also! Thanks

    ReplyDelete